Different Types Of Information Sources In Library
Generally information sources are classified into three types depends on the information available from the resource.
1. Primary Sources of Information: Primary sources are original materials. They are from the time period involved and have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation. Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based. They are usually the first formal appearance of results in physical, print or electronic format. They present original thinking, report a discovery, or share new information. The definition of a primary source may vary depending upon the discipline or context.
Some primary resources are given below:
- Audio recordings
- Internet communications on email, list serves
- Journal articles published in peer-reviewed publications
- Newspaper articles written at the time
- Original Documents
- Proceedings of Meetings, conferences and symposia
- Records of organizations, government agencies
- Survey Research
- Video recordings
- Works of art, architecture, literature, and music .
- Web site.
Some Secondary resources are given below:
History Of Present Illness
The levels of Evaluation and Management services are based on four types of history: Problem Focused, Expanded Problem Focused, Detailed and Comprehensive. Each type of history includes some or all of the following elements:
- History of present illness
- Review of systems
- Past, family and/or social history
- Nature of presenting problem
Coordination of care with other providers can be used in case management codes. Time can be used for some codes for face-to-face time, non-face-to-face time, and unit/floor time. Time is used when counseling and/or coordination of care is more than 50 percent of your encounter. See guidelines or CPT book for more detail when using these contributory factors. The extent of history of present illness, review of systems, and past, family and/or social historythat is obtained and documented is dependent upon clinical judgment and the nature of thepresenting problem.
The chart below shows the progression of the elements required for each type of history. Toqualify for a given type of history, all three elements in the history table must be met. A chiefcomplaint is indicated at all levels.
History of Present Illness
Review of Symptoms
Risk of Complications and/or Morbidity and Mortality
Type of Decision Making
Why Is A Credit Report Important
Your credit reports are what your credit scores are based on. You have three reports, one for each of the three major credit bureaus — Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion. While these reports are more or less the same, some lenders only report information to one or two of the bureaus instead of all three, so there can be some variation.
Your credit score is a three-digit number that’s based on the information in your credit reports. Think of it like a grade of your financial responsibility. Lenders use your credit reports and scores when deciding whether they want to work with you. A good credit score and a report without any concerning information will get you the best interest rates and increase your odds of getting approved. Conversely, a bad credit score and a report with several black marks is more likely to get you denied. If lenders do work with you, they’ll probably charge you higher interest rates to hedge their bets.
An increasing number of companies, apart from banks and financial institutions, are also starting to look at credit reports as a way of measuring a person’s responsibility. Some employers pull credit reports on prospective employees, especially if that employee will be working in a role managing company or customer funds. Some landlords look at credit reports for prospective tenants before approving them, and even some cell phone and cable providers run a quick credit check when you sign up for their services.
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How Do I Get A Copy Of My Credit Report
Everyone is entitled to one free credit report per bureau per year by federal law. You can access yours at AnnualCreditReport.com. You’ll have to answer some security questions to verify your identity and then you can view your reports. You have the choice to view all three reports at the same time or to space them out throughout the year.
If you’ve already used your annual free credit reports for the year, you can purchase additional credit reports from the credit bureaus themselves. Some credit monitoring companies may also offer credit reports to customers who sign up for their services.
What Information Is On A Credit Report
by Kailey Hagen | Dec. 2, 2019
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Everyone should know about their credit report information.
You probably think you’re done with report cards once you’re finished with school, but there’s one that follows you from the day you open your first credit card or loan account until the day you die — your credit report. Your credit report information is a record of how you manage borrowed money, and it can affect your chances of getting loans, , apartments, and even jobs.
It’s a pretty big deal, so you ought to know what yours is saying about you. Here’s everything you need to know about your credit report information and how you can check yours.
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Cs Of Credit Character
Character is the most comprehensive aspect of the evaluation of CreditworthinessCreditworthiness, simply put, is how “worthy” or deserving one is of credit. If a lender is confident that the borrower will honor her debt obligation in a timely fashion, the borrower is deemed creditworthy.. The premise is that an individuals track record of managing credit and making payments indicates their character as relevant to the lender, i.e., their propensity for repaying a loan on time. Past defaults imply negligence or irresponsibility, which are undesirable character traits.
Owing to the degree of specialization required in compiling a detailed list of an individuals credit history, financial intermediaries such as credit rating agencies or banks provide rating services. There may be a certain degree of variance in reports compiled by different organizations. They include the names of past lenders, type of credit extended, payment timeline, outstanding liabilities, and so on.
How Often Should You Check Your Credit Report
You should check your credit report at least once per year to verify that all the information is accurate. If you notice any accounts that you don’t recognize, notify the credit bureau and the financial institution associated with the account right away. They may have confused you with someone else who has a similar name, or someone may have stolen your identity and opened a fraudulent account.
You should also notify the credit bureaus and associated financial institutions if you notice anything incorrect on your existing credit accounts, like a payment mistakenly being recorded as late or a closed credit account with negative marks still showing on your report after seven years. Provide any documentation you have to prove that the information was inaccurate, like proof that you paid your bill on time. This can help speed up the investigation into your dispute.
It’s also wise to check your credit reports before you apply for a new loan, credit card, or job where the prospective employer wants to run a credit check. Looking it over can help you better assess your chances of success and avoid being denied due to poor credit.
If your credit report doesn’t reflect positively on you and you have some time, take steps to improve your credit before applying for that new credit account, job, or apartment. Always pay your bills on time, try to keep your credit utilization ratio under 30%, and apply for new credit sparingly.
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What Does A Credit Report Include
Your credit report includes basic identifying information like your name, address, and place of employment. It also contains detailed information about your debts, account history, and credit inquiries as well as some public records.
You might see misspellings of your name or other incorrect information on your credit report. This could be due to a reporting error, but it could also be a sign of identity theft, so it’s wise to report and dispute this and any other errors as soon as you catch them.
The report shows your account histories, such as for credit cards and loans, including information such as the date you opened the accounts, your credit limits or loan amounts, your account balances, and your payment history, including any late payments. Bankruptcies are also listed in a separate section of your credit report.
Inquiries can be “hard” or “soft.” Hard inquiries are the results of loan applications you’ve made and preapproved credit offers, and they’ll affect your credit score. A potential employer checking your report would result in a soft inquiry, as would checking your own credit report.
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What’s Not In Your Credit Report Information
There are a lot of misconceptions about the information your credit report contains and which factors affect your credit score. Here are a few things that don’t appear in your credit report or impact your score in any way:
- Your race
- Your age
- Your salary
- Your occupation or employment history
- Your level of education
- Your bank account balance
- Your shopping habits
The information in your credit report is strictly related to your history of credit management and does not contain any information unrelated to credit, apart from the basic identifying information outlined above.
Can I Pay Someone To Raise My Credit Score
You pay the company a fee ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars depending on the number of accounts you want to be added. You provide your name and social security number. The positive payment history can offset other negative information on your credit report and increase your credit score.
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Identity Protection By Organizations
In their May 1998 testimony before the United States Senate, the Federal Trade Commission discussed the sale of Social Security numbers and other personal identifiers by credit-raters and data miners. The FTC agreed to the industry’s self-regulating principles restricting access to information on credit reports. According to the industry, the restrictions vary according to the category of customer. Credit reporting agencies gather and disclose personal and credit information to a wide business client base.
Poor stewardship of personal data by organizations, resulting in unauthorized access to sensitive data, can expose individuals to the risk of identity theft. The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse has documented over 900 individual data breaches by US companies and government agencies since January 2005, which together have involved over 200 million total records containing sensitive personal information, many containing social security numbers. Poor corporate diligence standards which can result in data breaches include:
The failure of corporate or government organizations to protect consumer privacy, client confidentiality and political privacy has been criticized for facilitating the acquisition of personal identifiers by criminals.
How Do I Get My Fico Score From 8 Free
The data is from the Experian credit bureau. You can also get a free Experian FICO® 8 score by signing up directly with Experian. You may be able to get a free FICO® score from your credit card issuer or bank. Financial institutions belonging to the FICO Score Open Access Program offer this service.
Information On Outstanding Loans And Other Debts
Many business owners make the mistake of applying for a small business loan prior to paying off their outstanding loans and other business debts, such as their credit card balance.
Although the need for additional financing is understandable, applying for another loan can hurt your credit in many cases. This is because youll have another debt to be responsible for, which can be very challenging for business owners. In addition to your debts, youll also need to maintain your business, which probably includes rent payments, inventory orders, payroll, and other ongoing costs.
Understandably, lenders dont want to take on clients that have outstanding debt, because they likely wont be able to repay their balance in their set loan term. Due to this, you might not qualify if you have a loan balance that you still need to finish paying.
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Understanding The Five Cs Of Credit
Financial institutions attempt to mitigate the risk of lending to borrowers by performing a on individuals and businesses applying for a new credit account or loan. This process is based on a review of five key factors that predict the probability of a borrower defaulting on his debt. Called the five Cs of credit, they include capacity, capital, conditions, character, and collateral. There is no regulatory standard that requires the use of the five Cs of credit, but the majority of lenders review most of this information prior to allowing a borrower to take on debt.
Lenders measure each of the five Cs of credit differentlysome qualitative vs. quantitative, for exampleas they do not always lend themselves easily to a numerical calculation. Although each financial institution employs its own variation of the process to determine , most lenders place the greatest amount of weight on a borrower’s capacity.
Use A Parenthetical Citation
A parenthetical citation is a citation enclosed within parentheses.
Whatever comes first in the Works Cited citation is what will go into the parentheses in a parenthetical citation. Most often that item is an authors last name, but sometimes its a title or abbreviated title of an article or other type of text. This is another good reason for starting by creating a Works Cited entry the moment you begin working with a source.
The classic parenthetical citation includes the authors name and, if there is one, a page number. To learn more about parenthetical citation and see some examples, see the Purdue OWL article on MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics .
Heres an example:
If there are two authors, list both :
If there are three or more authors, list the first author only and add et al.* :
*et al means and others. If a text or source has three or more authors, MLA style has us just list the first one with et al.
But my source doesnt have page numbers!
If you are using an electronic source or another kind of source with no page numbers, just leave the page number out:
If youre quoting or paraphrasing someone who was cited by the author of one of your sources, then thats handled a bit differently. For example, what if you quote Smith, but you found that quote in the article by Fogbottom. In this case, you should introduce the speaker as described above, and then cite the source for the quote, like this:
But my source doesnt have an author!
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Cs Of Credit Collateral
When being assessed for a secured product such as a car loan or a home loan, borrowers are required to pledge certain assets under their name as collateral. They may include fixed assets such as the title of a parcel of land or financial assets and securities such as bonds.
The value of the collateral is evaluated by deducting the value of current loans secured through the same asset. The remaining equity indicates the true value of collateral for the borrower. The evaluation of the liquidity of collateral is also dependent on the type of asset, its location, and potential marketability.
How A Credit Report Is Compiled
Credit reports are maintained by businesses known as ” or “credit reporting agencies.” There are three major credit bureaus in the United States:
Public records information on your credit report used to include civil judgments, tax liens, and more, but it’s only included bankruptcies since 2017.
Other types of businesses, such as utility companies, don’t usually update your credit report with your monthly payments, but they might notify the credit bureaus if you fall seriously behind with your payments or if your accounts go into collection. Your cable bill isn’t automatically included in your credit report, but it might be listed there as a debt collection if you fall more than six months behind.
Health care facilities don’t report debt directly to the credit bureaus, but unpaid medical bills can appear on your report if a collection agency becomes involved. Medical providers might turn your account over to a collection agency if it becomes significantly past due, but all three credit bureaus will wait six months before putting medical debt on your credit history, to give you time to resolve the problem.
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