How To Write A Research Paper: Step
Now that youre an expert on finding credible sources for research, youre ready to go! But how do you even start to write a research paper? Dont worry, weve got you covered.
For starters, its important to get clear instructions from your professor on what they want. The next step is to start brainstorming ideas for a topic of research. Once youve decided and feel confident about it, youre ready to create your outline and plan out the goal of your research paper.
Befriend your librarian and start to search for quality and credible sources through a variety of means. Make sure you understand your topic from top to bottom before you start writing. As you write, be sure to always keep things factual, and that you finalize your thesis statement throughout your paper not just at the end. Thats whats going to guide your writing. Be sure to always keep format in mind, never forget to cite your sources, and to never skip those edits and final checks.
Now you are ready to write a high-quality, fact-driven research paper thats sure to impress your professors.
Chapter 4 How Do I Give Credit To Others For Their Ideas
One of the most challenging tasks in writing an academic paper is effectively integrating the work of others. There are several reasons why it is important to accurately cite the work of others throughout your paper:
- You are making a contribution to the body of literature in your discipline when you write a scholarly paper. It is important that this contribution be documented clearly so that others can link your ideas to that broader literature base.
- Those reading your paper may want to follow up on some of the ideas you have presented. Properly citing your sources allows them to find the complete reference in your reference list and locate the original source for themselves.
- As noted in Chapter 1, you compromise your scholarly integrity and put yourself at risk of plagiarism when you fail to systematically and accurately identify your sources.
My purpose in the first part of this chapter is to provide guidelines for effectively integrating the knowledge available in the academic, scholarly literature base into your papers. I pay particular attention to effective citation of all sources. I provide some tips for selecting and integrating direct quotations from key sources.
Lets start with some basic definitions.
To Cite Sources Within A Slideshare Infographic Or Visualization:
And what happens if you hired a designer to create something for your site — how do you give credit to the designer? Well, it depends on the terms you’ve worked out together. You could hire a ghost designer so that the content looks like it was designed in-house by your company. In that case, you don’t have to worry about attributing the design work to anyone. If, however, you’ve agreed to give credit to a designer, there should be some space in the visual that gives them credit for their work. Here’s an example of how we gave credit to the designer in one of our infographics — check out the bottom left:
And what happens if you cite content from other sources in your infographic? Use that bottom section for that, too. Here’s an example:
If the list of source URLs is getting too unwieldy, you can also set up a URL to send people to for the sources:
And remember, if you’re creating a SlideShare, you have the benefit of being able to make links clickable within the SlideShare. If you’d like instructions for doing that, check out this blog post — but this means that you can treat source content in a SlideShare with the same level of respect you treat source content in a blog post or elsewhere on your website.
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Tips For Citing Sources
It’s important to make sure you collect all the information you need to cite a source as you gather your information so that you won’t need to look it up again, so:
- Take clear, accurate notes about where you found specific ideas
- Write down the complete citation information for each book, article, etc. you use as you go along
- Use quotation marks when directly stating another person’s words
- Always credit original authors for their information and ideas
How To Incorporate Others’ Ideas
There are three ways in which you can incorporate others’ ideas into your report.
- Direct Quoting: Using the author’s exact wording from their research
- Do not use direct quoting too often. It is generally best practice to use your own wording rather than the original author’s.
When using any of three methods listed above, you must include an in-text citation and a full reference in the bibliography.
You can learn more about these three ways of using sources and by visiting the BiblioExpert section on Citing Sources.
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Forums Listservs Chats & Bulletin Boards
MLA:Levy, Michael. Re: your canon? Science Fiction Research Association, 19 Apr. 2006. Web. 26 June 2006. < > .
Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access.
APA:Levy, M. . Re: your canon? . Retrieved June 26, 2006 from . .]
Chicago:24. Levy, Re: your canon?
Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access.
There are many electronic forums that allow users with a specific interest or affiliation to discuss topics with each other. Some of these are restricted to members of a group, or of a specific course. Other such discussions are open to any interested party. Although discussions limited to professionals in a field may be more authoritative, in general you should probably treat material from these forums as popular rather than scholarly sources. See Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.
Note: Many such forums expect communications to be private. Be sure to check the groups policies on reproduction of such material. Even if an FAQ or moderator seems to make reproduction permissible, a decent respect for privacy suggests that you secure the posters permission before making the material public.
Reasons Why Citation Of Sources Is Important When Writing
The proper acknowledgement of sources might seem like a no-brainer, as indeed it should, to a scientist, and yet there are altogether too many instances where improper attribution goes unchecked.
Sir Isaac Newtonâs famous words in a l675 letter to Robert Hooke, âIf I have seen further, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants,â may serve as a pithy reminder that even the most famous scientists depended on their forebears.
But, in fact, it is even inadequate because Newton did not explicitly name those giants. .
There is a vast literature on the issues of proper citation, academic honesty, and the potential pitfalls of plagiarism, and the list of references for further reading at the end of this article offers a few suggestions. We will address these issues in future posts, so be sure to subscribe to our email list below!
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But aside from these self-evident reasons, there are other perhaps less-considered arguments for scientists to be meticulous about citing sources properly. Some of these reasons are for the good of the entire research community, whereas others are more personal. This article discusses some of those less obvious, yet compelling, arguments for reserving a block of time specifically for the purposes of attending to citations.
1. Attribution serves as a fact-checking tool.
2. Citation makes you a better researcher.
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To Cite Visualizations Slideshares And Infographics:
If you’ve found an infographic or visualization on another site that you’d like to feature on your website, you should treat it similar to how you’d treat citing any other content on your website. Simply include a link to the original source’s website where that visual lives, and include their name in the text.
You should also try your best to uphold image quality when republishing their visual content — if the website has embed code for that visual, use that code. This is why we try to make a point of creating embed code when we create visuals . It makes sharing easier for those that choose to republish the visual, and helps them maintain the quality and resolution in the process. If embed code isn’t provided, you can also include instructions like “click to enlarge” for static images — this helps ensure the visual fits the width of your website, but still provides a good reader experience.
Which Citation Style Should You Use
Many university departments and academic journals require a specific citation style, so first check the guidelines. If no citation style is specified, you need to choose one and use it consistently throughout your paper.
The best choice depends on your field and discipline. APA is the most common style in the social sciences, while MLA is the most common style in the humanities. Other disciplines, like medicine or engineering, often have their own specific styles.
You can check with your instructor or read other papers in your field to see what style they use.
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Why Do We Cite
Scholars and students cite to inform their readers of the sources used in their research and to credit individuals whose previous efforts have facilitated their work. Plagiarism is the presentation of a little-known fact or an idea found in another source as if it were one’s own, a serious breach of academic integrity. Promising careers in academia have foundered on a scholar’s failure to give credit where credit was due, and many colleges and universities in the United States, including WCSU, consider plagiarism grounds for disciplinary action.
Citations are also used in indexes and abstracting services, bibliographies, and electronic databases that specialize in compiling lists of sources to facilitate research . Because these tools are published by different publishing companies and citation style is not standardized, the same work may be cited slightly differently in one index or bibliography than in another, as these two examples illustrate:
- A foster care research agenda for the ’90s. R. Goerge and others. bibl Child Welf v73 p525-49 S/O ’94
- Goerge, Robert Wulczyn, Fred & Fanshel, David. . A foster care research agenda for the ’90s. Child Welfare, 73, 525-549.
Works Cited Or References Vs Bibliography
The most common way to cite sources is to use a “Works Cited” or “References” list at the end of your research paper. “Works Cited” is the title of your list of citations when using the MLA format the title “References” is used when citing sources using APA style. The list includes a citation for each of the sources you used to write your paper. The citations are formatted in a consistent style according to whichever citation format is used. Many instructors specify which format they prefer some leave it up to the students as long as they maintain one consistent format.
A “Bibliography” is not the same as a “Works Cited” or “References” list. In your “Works Cited” or “References” you only list items you have actually cited in your paper. In a “Bibliography” you list all of the material you may have consulted in preparing your essay, whether or not you have actually cited the work. A “Bibliography” may include any sources related to the topic of the research paper.
The list of all citations is commonly organized in a single alphabetical list. Each different type of source–book, magazine article, journal article, newspaper article, article from a reference book, World Wide Web page–has a precise format that is specified by the given format .
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How To Give Credit To Sources When Writing A Research Paper
When writing a research paper, finding and citing appropriate sources are the most important aspects of backing up your thesis. Proper sourcing can make the difference between strong and weak arguments in your paper. The two most commonly used writing and citation styles in research writing are the American Psychological Association and Modern Language Association guidelines. While APA style is most commonly used to cite sources for research papers within the social sciences, MLA is more often used for liberal arts and humanities work.
What Is Apa Citation Style
APA Style is widely used in the social sciences, business, and some of the life sciences.
There are two parts to referencing: the citations within the text of your paper and the reference list at the end of your paper.
The APA referencing style is an “author-date” system, so the citation in the text consists of the author and year of publication given wholly or partly in round brackets.
This guide gives example citations for the most common information formats used in APA Style, as well as links to all types of sources used in a Reference List and specific formatting examples. Examples are based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
For more examples of APA citations, check out the APA Example Citation Guide.
For more APA formatting guidelines, check out the APA Formatting Guide.
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What Is A Potentially Unreliable Source
Anything that is out of date, meaning its been published more than 10 years ago should be avoided. Materials published on social media platforms such as Facebook or personal blogs dont tend to be the most credible. Always make sure that an article contains proper citations and that the website you are using ends in .com or .org.
Formats For Complete Citations Used In The Literature Cited
In the Literature Cited you must provide complete citations for each of the published sources cited in your paper. The format for entries in the Literature Cited section differs for books and for journal papers because different kinds of information must be provided. The formats provided here are typical, but may vary in different publications depending on their particular needs and practices.
Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name:
- Allcitationentries are listed in alphabetical order based the first author’s last name
- If the same author are cited for more than one paper having the same order of authors’ names, the papers should be listed in chronological sequence by year of publication.
Bugjuice, B., Timm, T. and R. Cratchet. 1990. The role of estrogen in mouse xxxxcourtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 62:1130-1142.
Cratchet, R., Bugjuice, B.and T. Timm. 1994. Estrogen, schmestrogen!: Mouse xxxx as a dietary alternative for humans. J Nutrition 33:113 -114.
- If the same author are cited for two or more papers published within the sameyear, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them. For example:
Bugjuice, B. 1970a. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. ….x.J Physiol 40:140-145.
Bugjuice, B. 1970b. Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxxbehavior in female mice. J Physiol 40:1240-1247.
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Sites For Scholarly Research
When performing scholarly research, its extra important to make sure that your sources are credible. Government-run research is considered credible, but beware of any political sites.University and educational websites also tend to be reliable, but still take everything you read with a grain of salt. Company websites also tend to be reliable, although their ultimate goal is usually to promote a product. Organizations which are .org websites can be professional and reliable, however, sometimes they also have their own interests.
What Is Proper Use Of A Source
Proper use of a source means giving the source you used for information written credit for their intellectual property, thoughts or ideas. If you didnt already know the information, but found it somewhere else that requires you to cite your source. This can be done in a number of ways please see the LLCC resources below for more information.
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What Is A Literature Review
The literature review is a written explanation by you, the author, of the research already done on the topic, question or issue at hand. What do we know about this issue/topic/question?
- A literature review provides a thorough background of the topic by giving your reader a guided overview of major findings and current gaps in what is known so far about the topic.
- The literature review is not a list — it is a narrative helping your reader understand the topic and where you will “stand” in the debate between scholars regarding the interpretation of meaning and understanding why things happen. Your literature review helps your reader start to see the “camps” or “sides” within a debate, plus who studies the topic and their arguments.
- A good literature review should help the reader sense how you will answer your research question and should highlight the preceding arguments and evidence you think are most helpful in moving the topic forward.
- The purpose of the literature review is to dive into the existing debates on the topic to learn about the various schools of thought and arguments, using your research question as an anchor. If you find something that doesn’t help answer your question, you don’t have to read it. That’s the power of the question format: it helps you filter what to read and include in your literature review, and what to ignore.
How To Cite Sources In Blog Posts & Long
Blogs are hotbeds of source attribution issues, probably just due to the sheer volume of content the format offers. Gated and long-form content assets are prone to the same attribution issues, too, but perhaps to a lesser extent since the volume is typically lower, and turnaround times longer. So let’s walk through a couple common scenarios bloggers come across and figure out how to address them — but bear in mind you can apply these attribution methods to your long-form content assets, too.
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